by David Courtney working tools

Ragmala of malkauns

Ragmala Painting of Rag Malkauns from the Mewar school (circa 1605)


Rag Malkauns (A.K.A. Malkosh) is a very popular rag in the North Indian system (Hindustani Sangeet).  In the South it is known as Hindolam.  It is a pentatonic rag that has has the five notes Sa, Komal Ga, Ma, Komal Dha, and Komal Ni.  One would think that with so many komal (flat) notes that it would have a strong minor quality about it.  However, upon close examination we see that the absence of the fifth and the strong presence of the fourth causes the mind to "invert" it.  Therefore, it tends to sound surprisingly similar to Dhani to which it has a murchana relationship.

Malkauns has a long history, and it appears to have undergone numerous changes over the centuries.  It is said that Malkauns is derived from Malav Kaushik.  However, modern Malkauns has no resmblence to this ancient rag.

The mood is meditative, perhaps even sad.  Therefore, it tends to be played in slow to medium speeds.

The modality of Malkauns is not shared with any other rags.  Therefore there is really no need to go beyond the basic mode in order to define Malkauns.


Ascending structure for Malkauns
(general discussion of arohana) - (general discussion of notation)


Descending structure of Malkauns
(general discussion of avarohana)


Audav - Audav - (general discussion of jati)


Ma - (general discussion of vadi)


Sa - (general discussion of samvadi)


Midnight - (general discussion of time and rag)


Bhairavi That - (general discussion of that)


Sa - Ma - (general discussion of drone)




Selected Video







© 1998 - 2018 David and Chandrakantha Courtney

For comments, corrections, and suggestions, kindly contact David Courtney at david@chandrakantha.com